- World history
Ideology religion, imperialism and power are some of the elements that are known to determine the attitude of the people and the way in which the governments operate. These aspects also tend to influence the roles of the citizens as well as the rulers. These concepts are related, and they are known to have evolved over time, and they remain applicable in the modern history.
I partially agree that in the Modern History religion remains to be an essential element. In the European continent, religion diminished in the 17th century; this was due to the rise of secularism whereby the rules governing the social life would no longer come from the religious beliefs. Reasoning began to challenge religious faith and beliefs. Institutions of the governments and the ways of living became secularized. This called for a new basis from which the laws would be formed. Ideologies, therefore, had to be developed to replace religious faith. Liberalism ideology put emphasis on the freedoms and the rights of the citizens. On the other hand, the conservatism ideas called for preserving the religious beliefs.
Rejection of religion by the western countries did not influence religious beliefs of other nations. Faith went on to play a vital role in strengthening and weakening kingdoms and empires in other nations. Rulers of such countries used religion citations to justify their power. China and India are some of the countries that went on to promote empires through religious beliefs. They built multiple temples and developed religious faith. Muslim religion also went on to become widely spread especially in the 19th century. Countries like Iran-Pakistan and Iraq remain unaffected by the western nations religion.
I agree that Ideologies are an essential element of the modern history. Ideas were developed in the 19th century especially by the western countries in efforts to help stir economic and social changes. Some intellectuals though that the governments were not changing as fast as they ought to have. According to Karl Max (1880), reforms alone would not help enough to solve the problems of the working people. The Socialism ideology would therefore assist in redistributing property through the state. More ideas came up. There were some that were radical than others.
The ideology of Nationalism was promoting the elements of a united nation and it extended its boundaries to the outsiders. The new ideas expanded and influenced the whole world especially in the 20th century. The Russians combined the Leninist and the Marxist ideology which formed the communists’ ideology. This created a revolution that was violent and which brought about dictatorship. On the other hand the Germans adopted the Nationalism ideology to the extreme and they suppressed everything that came between the unity of the nation. Capitalism ideology promotes economic development and it is seen to stand out with the rise of core countries such as the US.
I also agree that imperialism is an essential element in the modern history. First there was industrialization across Europe that transformed the whole world. The revolution in Industrialization started in Europe and specifically in England. From there industrialization spread across other countries including France, Japan, US and also Belgium. Having led the industrial revolution, England became a political power and economic power and therefore colonized other lands therefore becoming a mighty empire
The Industrial Revolution gave rise to imperialism as various countries across Europe struggled to build empires. The countries wanted to obtain resources for their industries. In addition the European countries sought to subdue their enemies so as to gain power as well as glory. These countries also wanted to expand their boundaries. The primary drive for the European countries was to gain raw materials so that they would be able to broaden the capacity of their industries.
Imperialism took various forms including colonialism which entailed taking over different areas and ultimately controlling them regarding the politics, economics and the social cultural aspects. Other types of imperialism included economic imperialism, economic and social-cultural forms.
Imperialism in Europe is seen to have influenced various countries all over the world. By the 19th century Europe colonized the African countries. This is seen to have affected different aspects of the African countries including the economic, political and social issues including the religion. The political systems of the Africans disintegrated, some people in Africa changed their religion and Christianity became widespread. The African countries became more economically empowered due to the western influence. India also experienced economic imperialism whereby a British company controlled the affairs of the country.
In the 19th century the US advanced in industrialization which greatly empowered the country. The country followed in the footsteps of Europe and started trying out imperialism. The Unites States started with purchasing of Alaska from the Russia. The state also controlled the Hawaiian territory; this was followed by building an adamant navy and also building the Panama Canal. The Japanese also followed in the footsteps of Europe and hugely industrialized the country. Japan also borrowed from the west and made an enormous military base. In addition it also copied from the west and worked towards creating a useful education system.
I agree that Power has also remained to be an important aspect of the modern history. For example countries like the US and Russia engaged in a cold war from the year 1945 in efforts to gain more and more power. These countries also sought to obtain the economic power to outdo each other as the superpowers. Eventually the US finally became the superpower with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
World system theory
This is a system through which some countries are exploited while others become more and more economically empowered. According to Immanuel Wallerstein, the dominant countries which are the capitalists use the weaker countries so as to gain labor as well as raw materials. The poorer countries are poorly developed regarding their industries and they depend on the capitalist nations for capital. There are the semi-peripheral countries which have characteristics of both the core countries and the outer ones.
In the 19th century, the core countries (countries with advanced technology and high economic power) took more control of the African countries to enrich their industries. The peripheral countries which entail the weaker countries with lower income continue to provide the raw materials and labor to the peripheral countries. These countries have low literacy levels and inconsistent access to the internet.The 19th century saw the emerging of peripheral countries. Some of the peripheral countries that have emerged include Brazil Nigeria, South Africa and India.
The modern world system can trace its origin to the 16th century whereby the technology advancement brought up the market institutions. There was an improvement in production and the trade. There was also the progress in military strength which helped to bring about ties in the economies. The western countries adopted proper production methods. This brought about the wealth to these countries and formed the foundation of the capitalist economies. During the 20th century, the capitalist nations extended their markets. The US rose in the political and e economic strength.
Up to now the peripheral countries continue to provide raw materials to the core countries. The peripheral countries today include almost all countries in the African countries such as Angola, Ghana and Egypt. Nations such as Brazil and India are becoming more industrialized. The core countries in the modern world system include the US, Canada and most of the European countries.
Feminism is a concept whose roots are in the ancient Greeks. During the 19th century, the women started to realize that they had first to gain some political power so that they would be able to bring some changes. They sought to bring about some changes in economic matters, sexual matters and also on reproductive issues. In the 1960s, the women broadened their debates and included other issues such as sexuality, work issues and other family related matters. In the 1990s, the women brought about the politics of gender equality. The women are still working towards gaining equal opportunities, and they have made much progress.
In conclusion power, ideology, religion, and imperialism remain to be some of the most important themes in the modern history. This is because these issues have shaped and formed the foundation of the modern history in a great way. Other matters that are important in the contemporary history include feminism concepts and the word systems. All these elements have really contributed to the Modern History.
Bentley. Kempen: teNeues, 2013. Print.
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor Books, 1994. Print.
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